Zoology is the science of animals. It is the part of biology that studies the diversity of the animal world. It talks about the structure and life activity of animals, their distribution, their relationship with the environment, and the principles of their individual and historical development. B.Sc. Zoology course is closely connected to the industrial activity of man and to the mastery, rebuilding, and preservation of the animal world of earth.
Why Is Zoology Important?
A degree in B.Sc. Zoology is important for many reasons. For one, the study of animals and communities provides insight into how “life” works, and, consequently, how we work.
Many Zoologists are directly involved with the conservation of threatened or endangered species. The maintenance of biodiversity is considered, by many, crucial to our survival. Animals also have a great impact on our lives. They provide us with food, companionship, and a sense of wonder.
- Zoologists have contributed to the agricultural industry in many ways, with particularly significant contributions from entomologists enabling development of highly effective insect pest control techniques. Knowledge of the life cycles and reproductive habits of pests also allows safe storage of agricultural products for a much longer time and improves the quality of food products.
- A growing understanding of the habits and habitats of fish was a big part of the development of the commercial fishing industry in the 19th century, and the research of modern marine biologists and ichthyologists has led to the establishment of harvest limits and sustainable fisheries and improvements in aquaculture.
- Zoology has also made significant contributions to forensic science. Forensic pathologists can identify how long a body’s been buried based on the stage of the life cycle of the insects found on the corpse.
- ANATOMY: It is defined as the science of body structures and the relationship among them.
- ANIMAL NUTRITION: It is the branch that focuses on animal care, nutrition and animal feed science.
- BIOCHEMISTRY: It is the study of chemical processes occurring in living beings.
- BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION: Biodiversity conservation is about saving life on Earth in all its forms and keeping natural ecosystems functioning and healthy.
- BIOPHYSICS: It is the science of the application of the laws of physics to biological phenomena.
- DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY: It is the discipline that studies embryonic and other developmental process.
- ECOLOGY : Study of animals and plants in relation to their habits and habitats.
- ETIOLOGY: It is the study of understanding WHY a certain disease manifests itself in the way it does. It is the study of what causes a disease.
- EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY: Branch of biology that deals with the descent by modification of plants and animals from earlier generations.
- GENETICS: The scientific study of genes and heredity—of how particular qualities or traits are transmitted from parents to offspring.
- MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Molecular biology explores cells, their characteristics, parts, and chemical processes, and pays special attention to how molecules control a cell’s activities and growth.
- CELL BIOLOGY: It is the branch of biology that deals with the structure of a cell and the functions that are performed by it and its various organelles. It also talks about the inter relation between the various organelles.
- PALEONTOLOGY: Study of the prehistoric life through its fossilized remains or the traces of its history in sediments.
- PHYSIOLOGY: It is the branch of biology in which we attempt to explain the specific characteristics and mechanisms of an organism’s body that make it a living being.
- REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY: It is the branch of biology that studies about reproduction at different levels. It mainly involves the reproductive system and sex organs.
- TAXONOMY: Taxonomy is the science of naming, describing and classifying organisms and includes all plants, animals and microorganisms of the world.
- ZOOGEOGRAPHY: Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of animal species.
- MORPHOLOGY: The branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of organisms without taking in account the functioning.
Typical Course Structure
- Biology-I (Introduction to Biology): focuses on the basics of the concepts in biology.
- Biodiversity I: Non-Chordata: focuses on general characters and outline classification of different phyla.
- Chemistry: focuses on the basics of organic and inorganic chemistry.
- Biodiversity II: Chordata: focuses on general characters and outline classification of different phyla.
- Comparative Anatomy: focuses on the anatomy of different classes of chordates and their difference and similarities with respect to each other and with human anatomy.
- Animal Physiology and Functional Histology: focuses on the various physiological functions along with their histology.
- Cell Biology: focuses on the structure of cell, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell division, chromosomes and chromatin structure.
- Molecular Biology: focuses on the molecular aspects of the process such as DNA replication, transcription and translation.
- Biochemistry: focuses on the basics of biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids etc and their various metabolic pathways.
- Immunology: focuses on the immune system and the involvement of its components.
- Ecology: focuses on the ecosystem, habitats, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity, zoogeography, biogeochemical cycles, and conservation biology.
- Developmental Biology: focus in on embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis, genetic basis of development, stem cells.
- Genetics & Genomics: focuses on basic principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, sex determination and sex-linked characteristics, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage, recombination and mapping of genes in eukaryotes, population genetics.
- Evolutionary Biology: focuses on origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection, adaptation, and speciation.
- Biotechnology: basic introduction of the subject along with the real world applications and applications.
- Applied Zoology: focuses on the applications of zoology in real world such as in various industries.
- Bioinformatics and Biostatistics: focuses on problems of data integration for the life sciences.
- Environmental Management: focuses on the various fields related to the environment, populations and their characteristics.
- Animal Behavior: Types of behaviors, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and memory, social behavior across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones, evolution of animal behavior.
Higher study options after B.Sc. in Zoology:
- Master of Science in Zoology
- Master of Science in Applied Zoology
- Master of Science in Zoology (Honors)
- Master of Philosophy in Zoology
- Master of Philosophy in Life Science
- Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology
- Post Graduate Diploma in Life Science
- Master of Business Administration
A PhD may be obtained in any desired field.
- Opt for Indian Forest Services (IFoS) exam conducted by Union Public Services Commission (UPSC). A candidate, who has completed graduation, is below 30 years in case of candidate belonging to the general category take up these exams.
Jobs directly related to the degree include:
- Environmental consultant
- Field trials officer
- Marine scientist
- Nature conservation officer
- Research scientist (life sciences)
- Animal Behaviorist
- Wildlife biologist
- Zoo curator
Jobs where the degree would be useful:
- Biomedical scientist
- Environmental education officer
- Environmental manager
- Higher education lecturer